Your CV is an integral part of getting a job – make sure it's perfect!

Prepare a targeted CV based on your particular work or career interests. This is where your research will pay off – try to match examples of your skills and qualities with those described in the job profiles and vacancies you’ve looked at.

Your CV will be a key reference and invaluable when completing job application forms, which some employers ask for rather than asking you to submit your CV.

  • Focus on how you meet the ‘essential’ and ‘desirable’ skills requirements, any relevant experience, and qualities you have which employers are looking for. Give examples or evidence of these – it doesn’t have to be from work experience, it could be from hobbies, activities, volunteering, school, or college.
  • Set out the qualifications, subjects, and grades you have, highlighting any they are looking for.
  • Think about how you are going to present information about yourself so that it is relevant to each and every application you make.
  • Each application you make should be focused on a specific job, and you should be clear why you’re applying for that job.

Apply for suitable vacancies

Your local job centre can provide help searching for vacancies, and recruitment agencies and their websites can be another useful source. Don’t forget, family and friends can provide a valuable network of contacts. It is estimated that a lot of jobs are never advertised, but heard of through word of mouth.

If you want to get some work experience before going into full-time employment, search for local volunteering opportunities, or consider a work placement or internship. These can last from a few weeks to a year, and are offered by employers in sectors such as business, marketing, law, hospitality, and engineering. Depending on the type of contract on offer, you may or may not receive a wage. These opportunities are very popular and competition for places is high, so you will need to apply as soon as you can. 

Be proactive and keep going, even though it’s hard not to be disheartened if you don’t hear back from employers you’ve applied to. Maximise your chances of success by targeting your job hunting efforts rather than mass mailing.

Advice and tips on applying for jobs

See below for more advice from Which? about writing the perfect CV. 

How to write a CV

What should you write in your CV? Whether you’re applying for a weekend job, graduate scheme, or degree apprenticeship, stand out with our tips and examples...

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What is a CV?

A curriculum vitae (commonly referred to as a ‘CV’) is an overview of your skills, experience, and qualifications that demonstrates why you’re suitable for a particular job vacancy.

Writing your CV is a key part of any job application process, whether you’re applying for a part-time job at college, a graduate role, or a position a few years into your career. Your CV may be used as the basis for subsequent interviews, where you’ll be asked more specifically about what you’ve included.

We explain below what should go in a CV, but it might be helpful to keep the following questions in mind when writing yours:

  • Are you showing you have the appropriate key skills and experience that are being asked for (in the job description)?
  • Are you displaying this in the clearest and most concise manner? Don’t make it difficult for someone (with a long list of CVs to go through) to find what they’re looking for.
  • Does this make you stand out from other candidates who may have similar academic achievements, qualifications, and experience?
  • Would this persuade a potential (very busy) employer to take the time to meet you for an interview?

What is the right format for a CV?

While there is no ‘one way’ to write a CV, there are a couple of elements that most CVs always have:

  • Length: no longer than two sides of (white) A4 paper, typed (not including your cover letter).
  • Font: black, between size 10-12, and a sensible type such as Arial or Times New Roman.
  • Layout: simple and clear, using headings, formatting (bolding, italics, underlining), and spacing to structure the information and make it easily scannable.

In fact the simpler the layout, the less likely it is that elements will appear oddly when opened on different devices. Tip: edit it in Microsoft Word (or equivalent), and once it’s finalised, save and send it as a PDF.

Alternatively, it might be easier to avoid the following ‘CV don’ts’:

  • Don't try to stand out by using lots of colours, or other unusual formatting.
  • Don't save it under an odd filename, such as John_Smith_CV_CopyCopyRealOne4.doc.
  • Don't include a photo unless it's specifically asked for – this can take up valuable space.
  • Don't send it without doing a thorough check for spelling, punctuation, and grammar – there’s no excuse for typos!

Do you need a personal statement on a CV?

A personal statement for a CV is a short introduction about yourself where you highlight a few key strengths that are relevant to the role you’re applying to. It’s very different to a personal statement that you’d write when applying to university, despite sharing the same name. 

The aim is to give a recruiter a quick summary of who you are before they jump into a more detailed record of your job history, education etc.

A CV personal statement – also known as a ‘personal profile’ – should be included at the top of your CV. It can be written in either the first or third person – though it's advisable to remove pronouns if you do the latter. For example, say ‘A project manager with three years’ experience,’ rather than ‘He is a project manager with three years’ experience.’

Learn more about writing an introduction below.

What should go in a CV?

The following is standard for most CVs. However, what you emphasise will depend on how much real-world work experience you have. We cover writing a CV for a first job, or if you don’t have much work experience, further below.

The biggest tip for what to include in your CV is tailor it to the job you’re applying for!

Don’t send a generic CV that details all of your experience and skills (although if you’re writing your first CV, you might find yourself throwing everything in to pad it out – resist the temptation).

Read the job description for the role you’re applying for – research the employer, too – and select the experience and skills that are most relevant.

So what should you include?

Contact details

The following should go at the top of your CV:

  • full name
  • phone number (home and mobile)
  • email address – not an embarrassing one!
  • current address (doesn't have to be in full)

Make sure this information is up to date so a potential employer can reach you. They won’t want to have to chase you.


This should be a topline summary about yourself, and a teaser for what you say later. It shouldn’t be longer than a few sentences.

If you have some work experience, you can (briefly) highlight the field/s and area/s you’ve been working in.

You may also mention some of your key strengths and attributes here, especially any that the role explicitly requires – expect to back these up in the main body of your CV, and to talk about them during an interview. If you’re stuck on what to say, ask your peers or referee what they think yours are.

Finally, say what interests you about the role and organisation you’re applying to, and why you believe you’re the best candidate.

It’s important to note that an introduction might not be necessary if you are including a cover letter, which does a similar job.

Work experience

Beginning with your most recent/current position and going backwards, list out your previous jobs (including different roles at the same employer). 

For each role, you should include:

  • company or organisation’s name
  • your official title
  • length of employment (month and year)
  • your main responsibilities

Rather than simply listing everything in your job description, try to highlight what you achieved or the impact you made in a previous role (and tie these back to the required skills or experience).

For example, if you were applying to a graduate role in sales, a previous weekend job in a supermarket could demonstrate valuable skills:

My role as a sales assistant required excellent communication and problem-solving skills when dealing with customers’ queries and managing their expectations, all under high-pressured circumstances (e.g. product recalls, sales). On one notable occasion, I was named ‘employee of the month’ during our extremely busy Christmas period.

Tip: as you progress in your career and get more experience under your belt, you can leave off any early, irrelevant experience. For instance, if you’re applying to a managing director role in your early 30s, you can probably leave out that weekend job you had when you were 17!


Like work experience above, beginning with the most recent (or current) one, list out your formal education history, going back to secondary school.

You should include the name of the institution you studied at, when you studied there, and the qualification (and grade/s) you achieved.

Other achievements, qualifications, and skills

These can be further strengths that don’t quite sit within your work or education history. They may be asked for explicitly in the job description. Depending on the role, examples you might include could be:

  • specialist training, e.g. health and safety
  • the ability to speak different languages
  • knowledge of software or equipment, such as video or photo editing programmes, inventory systems (e.g. in a retail role)
  • awards or other achievements (Duke of Edinburgh, recipient of an academic scholarship)
  • links to online portfolios or blogs

You don’t necessarily need to hold a formal qualification or certificate for these, but if you’re proficient to a certain level (basic, advanced), mention it. It shows you’re adept at picking up new skills.

For example, if you have space, highlight a few notable examples (which you can expand on further in an interview):

Adobe Premiere Pro CC (advanced level) – I taught myself through online tutorials and forums initially for a school project. As a result, I film and produce regular video content for my own YouTube channel, which has accumulated over 10,000 followers.

Hobbies and interests

Like with your personal statement when applying to university, your decision to drop in your hobbies, passions, and interests will depend on what they are and whether they’re relevant to the job you’re applying to (or the skills required).

They can be a great way to stand out from the crowd (and a nice icebreaker in an interview). But, it's unlikely that they will be the reason you're offered a position – work experience and qualifications will usually be the deciding factor when an employer makes a job offer. 

What kind of hobbies and interests should I include on a CV?

Be mindful of how your interests may be perceived by an employer, and how that may shape their image of you. If, for example, you're a fan of live music, simply stating that on your CV may not be of relevence to your potential employer.

On the other hand, running a regular gig night at a local venue can demonstrate great organisational and marketing skills – there are always ways to turn a passion or interest into a relevant example for your CV.

List out the key skills that are being sought out, and decide if your hobbies or extracurricular activities have helped you sharpen these. Generally speaking, it will likely be those that you pursue actively, in some official capacity or where you possess a certain responsibility that will be worth mentioning here, such as being captain of a local hockey team.

Here’s another example turning a simple, seemingly unrelated extracurricular activity into a valuable asset:

I’ve been playing rugby for a local team for two years, initially for the physical and mental health benefits. However, my role within the team has grown massively, giving me opportunities to mentor younger teammates, arrange tournaments abroad, and raise money for charity. I can say without a doubt that this has improved my confidence and communication skills, something which has been highlighted by teachers.

 That’s not to say you can’t mention hobbies or interests that don’t demonstrate any relevant skills or experience whatsoever. These can shed some light on you as a person, complimenting your work history and education (especially if you’re a school student with little prior work experience).

However, you might want to keep these brief, bearing in mind what we say above about how these can be perceived, and chop them altogether if that space can be better used.


A reference is an endorsement of what you’ve put on your CV and a way for potential employers to verify your work and/or educational history. The person who writes your reference is a referee.

It’s standard to have at least two references when applying for a job, and these should usually be from your most recent employers (either your manager or a colleague). If you're a freelancer or independent contractor, you may ask a client or customer.

A reference should include your referee’s:

  • full name
  • role in relation to you (including employer’s name and length of time)
  • contact details (phone number and email address)

A reference can be used to confirm the following information:

  • that you worked where and when you’ve claimed to
  • your job title or role
  • your responsibilities and key tasks
  • your overall performance
  • the reason you left

See who you can you ask to be a reference if you don’t have a long list of previous employers to choose from, in our section on writing a CV for the first time.

It’s common courtesy to ask someone if they’ll provide a reference for you, beforehand. This way they can think about what they’ll say about you. A little notice can serve in your favour, especially if you can explain to them what the role is.

Tip: If you’re running low on space in your CV, you can simply write ‘References available on request,’ and provide their contact details later.

Writing your first CV (if you don’t have any experience)

We’ve already dropped in a few tips if you’re writing your first CV (for a part-time job at college, for instance), or if you simply don’t have much formal work experience to your name. 

But here are a few more pointers to help you write your first CV:

How to order it

To make up for your lack of job history, your CV needs to be skills-based rather than experience-based. This means highlighting key skills you’ve picked up in other scenarios which you can transfer to a workplace.

Common skills that are often asked for include working as part of a team, meeting deadlines, solving problems, and being organised.

Therefore, rather than your work experience being front and centre, look at the skills being asked for, and lead with examples where you’ve demonstrated these. Keep reading for tips on what you might talk about...

What to include

So how can you show you’ve worked as part of a team or to a deadline if you’ve not had a proper job before?

Here are some alternative examples you can use:

  • Academic performance: are there any subjects you’ve done really well in? Any standout exam results or pieces of coursework? Have you won any awards, such as for a project or perfect attendance?
  • Academic roles: have you been Head Boy/Head Girl, a prefect, or mentor at school?
  • Extracurricular activities: have you been part of any clubs, societies or sports teams? Have you volunteered, helped out in the local community, or done something for charity?
  • Unpaid work experience: have you helped out or shadowed a family member at their workplace, or taken part in work experience organised through your school?
Who else can be a referee?

Instead of former employers or colleagues, you can ask the following individuals for a reference:

  • teachers
  • careers adviser
  • sports coach
  • a figure in the local community, such as a religious leader
  • your supervisor during work experience

Read more about references above.